sewage treatment plants

Sewage is usually results of the disposals from residential and industrial dwellings, offices, factories, extension and other public outlets. This disposal includes the wastes and water from kitchen, baths, toilets, rain waters and other occasionally cleaning operations. Although the waste water coming from the industrial area can not be re-used as it contains the high level of solids and chemicals which makes the water black in colour where as the disposals or waste coming through household is of grey colour which can be recycled and re-used for gardening and farming purposes. It can also be supplied back to residential or commercial buildings to be used in flushing the toilets. But due to improper sewage system, black water is getting mixed with the grey water for which Sewage Treatment Process is adopted.

Kelvin Water Technologies Pvt Ltd has been dealing with many kinds of treatment plants out of which sewage treatment plant is one them. The company is providing repairs and maintenance services in all over India at an affordable cost and through the expert and efficient engineers. Sewage treatment is performed to clean the waste water underlying in land. This waste water is the result of domestic and commercial disposals, rain water etc. Thus, sewage treatment is performed to remove the majority of the contaminants lying in waste water and to produce the smooth flow of liquid which should be environment friendly. Apart from this, this helps in keeping the environment clean.

Technologies

Technologies used in Sewage Treatment System

MBBR (Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor)

MBBR technology employs thousands of polyethylene biofilm carriers operating in mixed motion within an aerated wastewater treatment basin. Each individual biocarrier increases productivity through providing protected surface area to support the growth of heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria within its cells. It is this high-density population of bacteria that achieves high-rate biodegradation within the system, while also offering process reliability and ease of operation. This technology provides cost-effective treatment with minimal maintenance since MBBR processes self-maintain an optimum level of productive biofilm. Additionally, the biofilm attached to the mobile biocarriers within the system automatically responds to load fluctuations.

MBR (Membrane Bio-Reactor)

MBBR technology employs thousands of polyethylene biofilm carriers operating in mixed motion within an aerated wastewater treatment basin. Each individual biocarrier increases productivity through providing protected surface area to support the growth of heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria within its cells. It is this high-density population of bacteria that achieves high-rate biodegradation within the system, while also offering process reliability and ease of operation. This technology provides cost-effective treatment with minimal maintenance since MBBR processes self-maintain an optimum level of productive biofilm. Additionally, the biofilm attached to the mobile biocarriers within the system automatically responds to load fluctuations.

SBR (Sequencing Batch Reactor)

jpgSequencing batch reactors or SBRs use a separate pre-treatment section to mechanically hold back solids and a biological aeration and settling tank. Small SBR wastewater treatment systems clean incoming wastewater over a number of cycles. The wastewater goes first into primary treatment (1st chamber), where the solid substances are retained. From there, the wastewater is fed into the SBR tank (2nd chamber). The actual biological cleaning by microorganisms now takes place in the SBR tank. Short aeration and rest phases alternate in a controlled cleaning process. The so-called activated sludge can now develop with millions of microorganisms and clean the water thoroughly. A rest phase now follows, during which the live sludge sinks to the bottom of the system. This allows a clarified water zone to form at the top of the SBR tank. The purified wastewater is now fed into a discharge system (stream, river, lake) or into an infiltration system. Afterwards, the sludge is fed back from the SBR tank into the first.

SAF (Submerged Aerated Filter)

The SAF is an up-flow bioreactor which employs a high efficiency neutral buoyancy plastic media. The SAF consists of a containment vessel made in either GRP, GCS, coated mild steel, stainless steel or concrete with internal dividing walls, internal air and water distribution systems, charge of plastic media and internal support structure. The media provides a large surface area on which the bacteria attach themselves to grow and live. Wastewater is introduced into the base of the SAF unit. Air is introduced into the SAF through a separate diffuser system also located near the base of the unit. An air blower supplies oxygen to the SAF environment on a continuous basis. The air and water distribution system design is such that it creates a very effective mixing pattern within the SAF. This pattern allows for rapid distribution of the wastewater throughout the packed media bed. This produces a homogeneous solution in full contact with the entire microbial population for the period of time that the wastewater is in the reactor.

types

Sewage is usually of following types

Domestic Sewage

This is the result of household chaos. Daily routine work includes bathing, toilet, washing clothes or kitchen utensils, cleaning etc. These kind of disposals are of grey color which is later recycled for re-use purposes. This recycled water is used for further planting, harvesting or for other nature related work. This sewage is also called sanitary sewage. This sewage can be purified to an extent of 99.9% but yet it includes some harmful stuff which cannot be re-used for the same purposes.

Industrial Sewage

This is generated through the activities performed in industry or factory outlets. This contains the poisonous chemicals, solids, oils etc which cannot be dissolved in water and so they ruin the water completely. Their cleanliness percentage resembles only 0 .1% and that's why it cannot be re-used for any purposes. This sewage is quite smelly and of black color which could result in spreading of harmful diseases.

Storm Sewage

Rain water and other natural water contain the organic materials which are not at all harmful. Dissolved dust is purified to make it re-usable and supplied through pipelines. The main goal of treatment is to make the waste water re-usable or smoothen the flow of water lying on roads or lands or coming from the different outlets. This treatment is performed as per the local, state and federal regulations or standards.

Measures

BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) - It is used to measure the strength of sewage. It is calculated by incubating at 20 degrees Celsius for 5 days period and measuring the dissolved oxygen from the beginning till the end of the period. It is one of the most commonly used measures for the strength of the sewage.

COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) - It's value is more than the BODs. It could bring the results within few hours. It is a measure of the amount of oxygen required to chemically oxidize the sewage.

Process

The treatment process involves the three stages which are as follows:

Primary treatment

is a basic method of cleaning the solids or chemicals from the waste water. In this treatment, water is temporarily stocked in an immovable basin in which heavy solids are retained at the bottom surface where as chemicals, light solids or oils float to the above water surface. The settled solutes are removed from the bottom and upper surface and the remnant waste water may be left free or re-cycled through secondary treatment.

Secondary treatment

is basically used to remove the biological waste that arise through household chaos, such as washing, cleaning or bathing. This treatment is performed through biological process in which micro organisms are separated from the discharged water prior to territory treatment to make the water re-usable.

Tertiary treatment

helps is removing more than 90% of solutes which is completely disinfected. This kind of treatment is quite expensive and performed under special circumstances. This treatment is eco-friendly and almost produces the quality of drinking water

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